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ⓘ Thermopolis Shale. The Thermopolis Shale is a geologic formation which formed in west-central North America in the Albian age of the Late Cretaceous period. Sur ..



                                     

ⓘ Thermopolis Shale

The Thermopolis Shale is a geologic formation which formed in west-central North America in the Albian age of the Late Cretaceous period. Surface outcroppings occur in central Canada, and the U.S. states of Montana and Wyoming. The rock formation was laid down over about 7 million years by sediment flowing into the Western Interior Seaway. The formations boundaries and members are not well-defined by geologists, which has led to different definitions of the formation. Some geologists conclude the formation should not have a designation independent of the formations above and below it. A range of invertebrate and small and large vertebrate fossils and coprolites are found in the formation.

                                     

1. Geological history

The Western Interior Seaway was an inland sea that existed from the Late Jurassic 161.2 ± 4.0 to 145.5 ± 4.0 million years ago to the end of the Paleogene 66 to 23.03 Ma. It existed in the middle of North America, extending from the Arctic Ocean to the Gulf of Mexico. It was roughly 3.000 miles 4.800 km long and 1.000 miles 1.600 km wide. The seaway was relatively shallow, with a maximum depth estimated at 660 to 1.640 feet 200 to 500 m.

A foreland basin existed just to the east of the Sevier orogenic belt, which was inundated by the Western Interior Seaway. A forearc on the western side of the basin made this deeper than the eastern side, encouraging the build-up of sediment and, in time, sedimentary rock. Erosion of the Western Cordillera also contributed to the build-up of sedimentary rock on the western edge of the basin, while the more low-lying area to the east provided much less. Changes in the amount, type, rate, and other aspects of the sedimentation were caused by uplift, subsidence, sea level changes, and other factors. The water in the basin made at least two major advances and one major retreat during the Cretaceous, adding complexity to the rock and permitting the creation of riverine, marsh, and estuarine rock in addition to the principal shallow and deep marine rock.

Dating of bentonite and palynological evidence indicate that the Lower Thermopolis Member was deposited between 100.3 and 98.5 Ma. A study of Inoceramidae bivalves confirmed a Late Albian age. Deposition of the upper three members of the Thermopolis Shale occurred over approximately 7 million years.

                                     

2. Identification

The Thermopolis Shale was first identified in 1914 by geologist Ferdinand F. Hintze, Jr. He called it the "Lower Benton Shale", and included the Mowry Shale in the same formation. Hintze described three members: The basal "rusty beds", a lower shale, a 25-to-40-foot 7.6 to 12.2 m thick "Muddy Sand" muddy sandstone, and an upper shale member. The fourth member of the "Lower Benton Shale" was the Mowry Shale.

The Thermopolis Shale was first named by geologist Charles T. Lupton in 1916. Lupton described the rocks as a formation lying conformably atop the Cloverly Formation, and conformably underlying the Mowry Shale. The Thermopolis Shale was the basal of four formations making up the Colorado Group. He described the Thermopolis Shale as Late Cretaceous in age, generally dark in color, from 710 feet 220 m thick, and with sandstone lenses common. At least one member of the Thermopolis Shale was also noted, a "muddy sand" layer about 15 to 55 feet 4.6 to 16.8 m thick. No type locality was identified, but the formation was named for the town of Thermopolis in Hot Springs County, Wyoming - where, nearby, outcroppings of the shale were well exposed. Luptons division of the Thermopolis Shale was adopted by the United States Geological Survey and used for the next 50 years.

The stratigraphic history of the Thermopolis Shale was first outlined by geologist Don L. Eicher in 1962.

                                     

3. About the formation

The Thermopolis Shale belongs to both the Colorado Group and Dakota Formation. Both historically and currently, the stratigraphic units in these groups, and in the Thermopolis Shale, have been unclear, and the nomenclature used by geologists is not standardized. The identification of beds, members, and formations and their names have changed over time as well.

The Thermopolis Shale is said by Eicher to overlie the Cloverly Formation, although Rice, Porter et al., and Lash that in Montana and Wyoming the Kootenai Formation is geologically equivalent to the Cloverly Formation and thus conclude that the Thermopolis Shale overlies the Kootenai Formation. There is disagreement as to the stratigraphic definition of the basal member of the Thermopolis Shale, however. Eicher has argued that the "rusty beds" division is clearly distinguishable in many ways from the Cloverly Formation, and thus belongs to the Thermopolis Shale. Seeland and Brauch assigned the "rusty beds" to the Cloverly Formation in 1975, an assessment concurred with by Finn in 2010. Porter et al., however, classified the "rusty beds" as part of the Fall River Sandstone in 1997.

What constitutes the upper boundary of the Thermopolis Shale is disputed, making it difficult to identify what overlays the Thermopolis Shale. In 1922, Collier identified the beds below the Mowry Shale as the Nefsy shale member of the Graneros Shale. This left the Thermopolis Shale underlying the Graneros Shale. But Rubey assigned these rocks to the Mowry Shale in 1931, so that now the Thermopolis Shale underlay the Mowry Shale. Eicher redefined these beds in 1960 as the Shell Creek Shale, separating them from the Mowry Shale. This effectively put the Thermopolis Shale below the Muddy Sandstone Formation. In 1998, Porter et al. identified the Shell Creek Shale as the upper member of the Thermopolis Shale, a position with which Lash agreed in 2011.

Depending on the definition of the shale, and the location, the Thermopolis Shale varies widely in thickness. Chester N. Darton estimated the size of the formation at 800 feet 240 m including the "rusty beds" in 1906. In 1914, Hintze described the formation as 720-to-770-foot 220 to 230 m deep. Hewett and Lupton reported in 1917 that the shale including the "rusty beds" to be 400 to 800 feet 120 to 240 m thick in the Bighorn Basin, while Finn not including the "rusty beds" reported a thickness in the same area of 125 to 230 feet 38 to 70 m. On the Wind River Indian Reservation of Wyoming, using the inclusive definition, it was reported to be a more robust 320 to 450 feet 98 to 137 m thick. It is only 10 feet 3.0 m thick in the Shirley Basin of southwest central Wyoming.

Generally speaking, the Thermopolis Shale consists of a dark gray to black shale, with thin layers of bentonite, sandy claystone, and siltstone interspersed throughout the shale. Depending on the stratigraphic definition of the formation, a gray, thinly-bedded sandstone member exists between the upper and lower members.



                                     

3.1. About the formation Members

For the purposes of this article, the definition of the Thermopolis Shale used by Porter et al. and Lash will be used, recognizing as Condon does that there is scientific disagreement about this issue. Using this definition, there are four members of the Thermopolis Shale:

  • Lower Thermopolis Member - This member of the Thermopolis Shale was first briefly described by Darton in 1904, and more completely by Washburne in 1908. The member has remained unnamed or only informally named, usually being only referred to as the Lower Thermopolis Member. These rocks were deposited as the northern and southern portions of the Western Interior seaway linked together, and represents deposition during the maximum "transgression" rise in sea level of the Western Interior Seaway. The transition from the "rusty beds" to the Lower Thermopolis Member is gradational, probably due to erosion or flooding. The Lower Thermopolis Member was described by Washburne and Harshman as carbon-rich black shale with occasional sandstone lenses in its lower portion, and E.N. Harshman noted it was fissile. Porter et al., however, described the rock in 1993 as mudstone or siltstone, implying a lack of fissility. The Lower Thermopolis Member is geologically equivalent to the Skull Creek Shale.
  • The "rusty beds" Member - This basal member of the Thermopolis Shale was first described by Nelson H. Darton in 1904, who noted the sandy nature of this shale and its rusty brown color. The color was attributed to the presence of iron, and Darton coined the term "rusty series" in 1906. The first geologist to use the term "rusty beds", however, was Chester W. Washburne in 1908. These rocks were laid down as the level of the Western Interior Seaway began a major rise. Erosion of the lacustrine Kootenai Formation occurred, creating a nonconformity as the new "rusty beds" rock was laid down. In some places, the entire upper Himes Member of the Cloverly Formation had eroded, allowing the "rusty beds" to lie disconformably on the medial Little Sheep Member. The "rusty beds" consist of thin layers of reddish-brown sandstone between 3 to 18 inches 7.6 to 45.7 cm thick, separated by leaves of black shale between 1 to 12 inches 2.5 to 30.5 cm thick. The basal beds of the "rusty beds" are probably estuarine or deltaic in nature. The member was estimated as between 20 feet 6.1 m to 200 feet 61 m in thickness. The "rusty beds" member is geologically equivalent to the Fall River Sandstone, Greybull Sandstone, and some members of the Dakota Formation.
  • Upper Thermopolis Member - This member of the Thermopolis Shale was first briefly described by Darton in 1904, and more completely by Washburne in 1908. Norman Mills was the first to use the term "Upper Thermopolis" in 1956, although the member remained formally unnamed. The Upper Thermopolis Member was laid down conformably atop the Muddy Sandstone in the foreland basins interior during the latter part of the Western Interior Seaways second transgression. Washburne described the member as consisting of bluish-black shale, interbedded very occasionally with beds of volcanic ash and bentonite in the upper part. Lupton argued for two distinct divisions in the member: Lower beds of soft, black shale about 170 feet 52 m thick, and upper beds of hard shale with sandstone lenses about 230 feet 70 m thick. Harshman has provided evidence that the upper beds are a transitional zone leading to the Mowry Shale. He observed that the upper beds consist primarily of thin, limy, silty sandstone and silty shale beds interbedded with dense, siliceous Mowry Shale with the occasional bed of silty lignite. The sandstone beds exhibit mud cracks and root tubes which indicate a paludal marsh deposited origin. The differences between the upper and lower beds led Harshman to conclude that some of the sandier beds near the base of the Upper Thermopolis Member may belong to the Muddy Sandstone Member. Seeland and Brauch also found extensive evidence of gradational contact with the overlying Mowry Shale. The Muddy Sandstone Member is geologically equivalent to the Shell Creek Shale.
  • Muddy Sandstone Member - This member of the Thermopolis Shale was first briefly described by Darton in 1904, and much more completely by Hintze in 1914. Hintze described it as a widespread almost white sandstone member, 25 to 40 feet 7.6 to 12.2 m thick, with small, uniform, poorly cemented grains. Hintze called this member the "Muddy sand", after the terminology used by oil and gas drillers in Wyoming. It remained informally known as the "Muddy sand" into the 1960s, despite widespread acknowledgement among geologists that it was significant and widely occurring and worthy of a formal name. By 1972, the member had received the formal name "Muddy Sandstone Member". The Muddy Sandstone began to be laid down during a period when water levels in the Western Interior Seaway dropped, and this deposition continued once sea levels rose again. An erosional unconformity occurred while the sea receded, over which estuarine and fluvial deposits were laid down as the Muddy Sandstone. Thus, in some areas contact with the overlying Muddy Sandstone is sharp and unconformable, while in others it is conformable and gradational. Deposition of the Muddy Sandstone continued around the foreland basins margins, while the Upper Thermopolis Member was laid down conformably above the Muddy Sandstone in the basins interior. The Muddy Sandstone consists of a number of thin beds of fine-grained, silty sandstone of buff, brownish-grey, or grey color. It is shaly, contains carbon flecks and pyrite crystals, and when weathered is either buff or grey. Some beds exhibit ripple marks. The sandstone is interbedded with thin beds of shale, siltstone, and occasionally bentonite. Lupton estimated the Muddy Sandstones thickness at 10 to 55 feet 3.0 to 16.8 m in thickness, although Porter et al. have pointed out that it varies widely in thickness from place to place. David Seeland and Early Brauch have concluded that is because pre-Laramide geologic structures or topography probably governed the distribution of Muddy Sandstone deposits. The Muddy Sandstone Member is geologically equivalent to the Birdhead Sandstone.

Surface outcroppings of the Thermopolis Shale occur in central Canada, and the U.S. states of Montana and Wyoming. Marine-deposited rock thins toward the west, while nonmarine-deposited rock thins toward the east. The marine-deposited rock is primarily shale, with some limestone, sandstone, and siltstone. The nonmarine rock is primarily sandstone, with some coal, shale, "black" or carbonaceous shale, and siltstone.

                                     

4. Fossil record

The Thermopolis Shale is unusually rich in marine vertebrate fossils, consisting primarily of skeletal material, teeth, and coprolites.

A particularly rich marine vertebrate fossil zone exists in the lower beds of the Upper Thermopolis Member. Marine crocodile, plesiosaur primarily Edgarosaurus muddi, ray primarily Pseudohypolophus and an unidentified species, sawfish primarily Onchopristis, and turtle primarily Baenidae and Glyptops remains, as well as whole coprolites, are abundant. Hybodont shark primarily Meristodonoides, ganoid-scaled and teleost fish, and invertebrate fossil ammonoids primarily Baculites are also found.

                                     

5. Bibliography

  • Weimer, Robert J.; Obradovich, John D.; Cobban, William A.; Merewether, E. Allen 1997. "A time framework for the late Albian and early Cenomanian strata of northern Wyoming and Montana: Bighorn Basin: 50 years of the frontier". In Campen, Elizabeth B. ed. Evolution of the geology of the Bighorn Basin: 1997 Field Trip and Symposium. Billings, Mont.: Yellowstone Bighorn Research Association. CS1 maint: ref=harv link
  • Dickinson, William R. May 2004. "Evolution of the North American Cordillera" PDF. Annual Review of Earth and Planetary Sciences. 32: 13–45. doi:10.1146/annurev.earth.32.101802.120257. CS1 maint: ref=harv link
  • Feldmann, Rodney M.; Schweitzer, Carrie E.; Green, Robin M. 2008. "Unusual Albian Early Cretaceous Brachyura Homoloidea: Componocancroidea New Superfamily from Montana and Wyoming, U.S.A." Journal of Crustacean Biology. 28 3: 502–509. doi: 10.1651/07-2933r.1. CS1 maint: ref=harv link
  • Vuke, Susan M. 1984. "Depositional environments of the early Cretaceous Western Interior Seaway in southwestern Montana and the northern United States". In Stott, Donald F.; Glass, Donald J. eds. The Mesozoic of Middle North America: A Selection of Papers from the Symposium on the Mesozoic of Middle North America, Calgary, Alberta, Canada, May 1983. Calgary: Canadian Society of Petroleum Geologists. CS1 maint: ref=harv link
  • Porter, Karen W.; Dyman, Thaddeus S.; Cobban, William A.; Reinson, Gerry E. 1998. "Post-Mannville/Kootenai Lower Cretaceous Rocks and Reservoirs, North-Central Montana, Southern Alberta and Saskatchewan". In Christopher, James Ellis; Paterson, D.F.; Bend, Stephen Leonard eds. Eighth International Williston Basin Symposium Report. Bismarck, N.D.: North Dakota Geological Society. CS1 maint: ref=harv link
  • Darton, Nelson H. 1906. Geology of the Bighorn Mountains. U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 51 Report. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Geological Survey. CS1 maint: ref=harv link
  • Collier, A.J. 1922. "The Osage oil field, Weston County, Wyoming". U.S. Geological Survey Bulletin 736 PDF Report. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Geological Survey. CS1 maint: ref=harv link
  • Cobban, William A. October 1951. "Colorado Shale of central and northwestern Montana and equivalent rocks of Black Hills". American Association of Petroleum Geologists Bulletin. CS1 maint: ref=harv link
  • Obradovich, John D.; Cobban, William A.; Merewether, E. Allen; Weimer, Robert J. July 1997. "A time framework for the late Albian and early Cenomanian strata of northern Wyoming and Montana". In Campen, Elizabeth B. ed. 1997 Bighorn Basin Symposium Guidebook. Billings, Mont.: Geological Society of America. CS1 maint: ref=harv link
  • Rubey, William W. 1931. "Lithologic Studies of Fine-Grained Upper Cretaceous Sedimentary Rocks of the Black Hills Region". Shorter Contributions to General Geology. U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 165-A PDF Report. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Geological Survey. CS1 maint: ref=harv link
  • Harshman, E.N. 1972. Geology and Uranium Deposits, Shirley Basin Area, Wyoming. Geological Survey Professional Paper No. 745 Report. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Geologic Survey. CS1 maint: ref=harv link
  • Hewett, Donnell Foster; Lupton, Charles T. 1917. Anticlines in the Southern Part of the Big Horn Basin, Wyoming: A Preliminary Report on the Occurrence of Oil. U.S. Geological Survey Bulletin 656 PDF Report. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Geological Survey. CS1 maint: ref=harv link
  • Hintze, Ferdinand Friis, Jr. 1914. The Basin and Greybull oil and gas fields. Wyoming State Geologists Bulletin No 10 PDF Report. Casper, Wyo.: Geologists Office, State of Wyoming. CS1 maint: ref=harv link
  • Darton, Nelson H. January 1904. "Comparison of the stratigraphy of the Black Hills, Bighorn Mountains, and Rocky Mountain Front Range". Geological Society of America Bulletin. 15: 394–401. doi:10.1130/gsab-15-379. CS1 maint: ref=harv link
  • Dolson, John; Miller, Dave; Evetts, M.J.; Stein, J.A. March 1991. "Regional paleotopographic trends and production, Muddy Sandstone Lower Cretaceous central and northern Rocky Mountains". American Association of Petroleum Geologists Bulletin: 409–435. CS1 maint: ref=harv link
  • Mills, Norman K. 1956. "Subsurface stratigraphy of the pre-Niobrara Formations in the Bighorn Basin, Wyoming". In Burk, C.A. ed. Wyoming Stratigraphy. Part I: Subsurface Stratigraphy of the Pre-Niobrara Formations in Wyoming. Casper, Wyo.: Wyoming Geological Association. CS1 maint: ref=harv link
  • Lupton, Charles T. 1916. "Oil and gas near Basin, Big Horn County, Wyoming". Contributions to Economic Geology, 1915: Part 2, Mineral Fuels. U.S. Geological Survey Bulletin 621-L Report. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Geological Survey. CS1 maint: ref=harv link
  • Lash, Catherine Eileen 2011. Depositional Environment and Taphonomy of Marine Vertebrate Biofacies in the Lower Cretaceous Albian Thermopolis Shale, South-Central Montana PDF M.Sc. thesis. Montana State University. CS1 maint: ref=harv link
  • Porter, Karen W.; Dyman, Thaddeus S.; Tysdal, Russell G. 1993. "Sequence boundaries and other surfaces in Lower and lower Upper Cretaceous rocks of central and southwest Montana: A preliminary report". In Hunter, L.D. Vern ed. Energy and Mineral Resources of Central Montana. Billings, Mont.: Montana Geological Society. CS1 maint: ref=harv link
  • Kauffman, Erle G. July–October 1977. "Geological and biological overview: Western Interior Cretaceous Basin". The Mountain Geologist: 75–99. CS1 maint: ref=harv link
  • Washburne, Chester W. 1908. "Gas fields of the Bighorn Basin, Wyo.". In Hayes, C.W.; Lindgren, Waldemar eds. Contributions to Economic Geology, 1907. Part I: Metals and Nonmetals, Except Fuels. U.S. Geological Survey Bulletin No. 340 PDF. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Geological Survey. CS1 maint: ref=harv link
  • Dolson, John C.; Muller, Davis S. 1994. "Stratigraphic evolution of the Lower Cretaceous Dakota Group, Western Interior, USA". In Caputo, Mario V.; Peterson, James A.; Franczyk, Karen J. eds. Mesozoic Systems of the Rocky Mountain Region. Denver: Rocky Mountain Section SEPM Society of Economic Paleontologists and Mineralogists. CS1 maint: ref=harv link
  • Seeland, David A.; Brauch, Earl F. 1975. Status of Mineral Resource Information for the Wind River Indian Reservation, Wyoming. Administrative Report BIA-8 PDF Report. Washington, D.C.: Bureau of Indian Affairs. CS1 maint: ref=harv link
  • Rice, Dudley D. 1976. "Revision of Cretaceous nomenclature of the northern Great Plains in Montana, North Dakota, and South Dakota". In Cohee, George Vincent; Wright, W.B. eds. Changes in stratigraphic nomenclature by the U.S. Geological Survey, 1975. U.S. Geological Survey Bulletin 1422-A. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Geological Survey. CS1 maint: ref=harv link
  • Molenaar, Cornelius M.; Rice, Dudley D. 1988. "Cretaceous rocks of the Western Interior Basin". In Sloss, Laurence L. ed. Sedimentary Cover - North American Craton: U.S. Boulder, Colo.: Geological Society of America. CS1 maint: ref=harv link
  • Porter, Karen W.; Dyman, Thaddeus S.; Thompson, Gary G.; Lopez, G.E.; Cobban, William A. 1997. Six Outcrop Sections of the Marine Lower Cretaceous, Central Montana. Report Investigation 3 Report. Helena, Mont.: Montana Bureau of Mines and Geology. CS1 maint: ref=harv link
  • Moberly, Ralph, Jr. August 1960. "Morrison, Cloverly, and Sykes Mountain Formations, Northern Bighorn Basin, Wyoming and Montana". Geological Society of America Bulletin. 71 8: 1137–1176. doi:10.1130/0016-76061960712.0.co;2. CS1 maint: ref=harv link
  • Kauffman, Erle G.; Caldwell, W.G.E. 1993. "The Western Interior Basin in space and time". In Caldwell, W.G.E.; Kauffman, Erle G. eds. Evolution of the Western Interior Basin. Volume 39 of Geological Association of Canada Special Paper. St. Johns, NL: Geological Association of Canada. CS1 maint: ref=harv link
  • Eicher, Don L. 1960. "Stratigraphy and micropaleontology of the Thermopolis Shale" PDF. Peabody Museum of Natural History Bulletin. CS1 maint: ref=harv link
  • Williams, Gordon D.; Stelck, Charles R. 1975. "Speculations of the Cretaceous palaeogeography of North America". In Caldwell, W.G.E. ed. The Cretaceous System in the Western Interior of North America. Special Paper 13. Waterloo, Ont.: Geological Association of Canada. CS1 maint: ref=harv link
  • Dyman, Thaddeus S.; Merewether, E. Allen; Molenaar, C.M.; Cobban, William A.; Obradovich, John D.; Weimer, Robert J.; Bryant, William A. 1994. "Stratigraphic transects for Cretaceous rocks, Rocky Mountains and Great Plains". In Caputo, Mario V.; Peterson, James A.; Franczyk, Karen J. eds. Mesozoic Systems of the Rocky Mountain Region. Denver: Rocky Mountain Section SEPM Society of Economic Paleontologists and Mineralogists. CS1 maint: ref=harv link
  • Condon, Steven M. 2000. Stratigraphic Framework of Lower and Upper Cretaceous Rocks in Central and Eastern Montana. U.S. Geological Survey Digital Data Series DDS-57 PDF Report. Denver: U.S. Geological Survey. CS1 maint: ref=harv link
  • Finn, Thomas M. 2010. "New source rock data for the Thermopolis and Mowry Shales in the Wyoming part of the Bighorn Basin". U.S. Geological Survey Digital Data Series DDS–69–V PDF Report. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Geologic Survey. CS1 maint: ref=harv link
  • Kauffman, Erle G. 1985. "Cretaceous evolution of the Western Interior Basin of the United States". In Pratt, Lisa M.; Kauffman, Erle G.; Zelt, Frederick B. eds. Fine-Grained Deposits and Biofacies of the Cretaceous Western Interior Seaway: Evidence of Cyclic Sedimentary Processes: Society of Economic Paleontologists and Mineralogists Guidebook No. 4 PDF. Denver: Society of Economic Paleontologists and Mineralogists. CS1 maint: ref=harv link
  • Eicher, Don L. 1962. "Biostratigraphy of the Thermopolis, Muddy, and Shell Creek Formations". In Enyert, Richard L.; Curry, William H. III eds. Symposium on Early Cretaceous Rocks of Wyoming and Adjacent Areas: Wyoming Geological Association 17th Annual Field Conference Guidebook. Casper, Wyo.: Wyoming Geological Association. CS1 maint: ref=harv link


                                     
  • Edgarosaurus is a genus of polycotylid plesiosaur from the Thermopolis Shale containing one species, E. muddi.The type specimen was found in Early Cretaceous
  • Seaway forming sandstone and the thick, organic - rich Thermopolis Shale Mowry Shale and Cody Shale which are a major source of oil. Dryland conditions
  • described by W.G. Pierce as thick, lenticular, grey sandstone, gray shale carbonaceous shale and bentonite. Dinosaur remains are among the fossils that have
  • disconformably on the Morrison Formation and is conformably overlain by the Thermopolis Shale It is subdivided into a variety of members, depending on the location
  • parts of the basin filled with the Mancos Shale Most of the Bighorn Basin filled with the Thermopolis Shale Appalachian Basin Foreland to the west of
                                     
  • Cretaceous Thaynes Formation Triassic Thermopolis Shale Cretaceous Three Forks Formation Devonian Three Forks Shale Devonian Tongue River Formation Paleogene
  • Center in Thermopolis Wyoming, it has the best - preserved head and feet most of the neck and the lower jaw have not been preserved. The Thermopolis specimen
  • deposition of the rock. The Chugwater consists mainly of siltstone and shales with interspersed sandstones. While this composition will lend itself to
  • Soft tissue remains of plesiosaurs are rare, but sometimes, especially in shale deposits, they have been partly preserved, e.g. showing the outlines of
  • University of Wyoming Geological Museum, Laramie Wyoming Dinosaur Center, Thermopolis Wyoming Paleontology portal Paleontology in Colorado Paleontology in
  • Cretaceous United States Tesse Sandstones Formation Jurassic France Thermopolis Shale Formation Cretaceous United States Tioriori Group Takatika Grit Formation

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Yale Peabody Museum Bulletin Yale Peabody Museum of Natural.

A section of the Thermopolis Shale was measured in the Bighorn Mountains on the east side of Soap Creek dome Rogers, et al., 1948. This unit consists of. Normal fatty acids in sediments Wiley Online Library. Shale pinched out before reaching Peace River town Stelck. 1958. This tenet Eichers 1960 work on the Thermopolis Shale shows that the H. gigas fauna is. Cretaceous Tintinnids from the Western Interior of the United JStor. Stratigraphy and micropaleontology of the Thermopolis shale by Don L Eicher Book 2 editions published in 1960 in English and held by 77 WorldCat member​. Mesozoic Field Camp. This paper is based on a study of the stratigraphy and microfaunas of the Thermopolis shale. The study was concentrated mainly in the Big Horn Basin. However.


Gray Reef Dam Bureau of Reclamation.

Shales. The observations provide new evidence for possible relationships between acids and paraffins in sedimentary rocks. Mowry Shale and Thermopolis​. Company seeks to convert northeastern Laramie County oil well to. The Thermopolis Shale! If you are a rock hound or just love nature & geology, be sure to take a ride through our scenic Wind River Canyon and take a hike. Plate 7. Geologic units and corresponding rock stratigraphic units. Abstract. The Thermopolis Formation was deposited in an inland sea on the east side of the Rocky Mountains approximately 105 million years ago.


Patrick S. Druckenmiller Curriculum vitae 1 University of Alaska.

Dinosaur bones found in Thermopolis Shale. 64 Page 19 sate, and 17 barrels of water per day from the Lewis Shale between 13.244 and. 13.286 feet. 9. Bulletin. Natural history Natuurlijke historie. 18 STRATIGRAPHY. Thermopolis Shale. Bear. River. Fm. Washakie. COAL. Thermopolis Shale Thermopolis Shale. Thermopolis Shale. Thermopolis Shale. Thermopolis Shale. Clays of the Big Sky The Clay Minerals Society. Druckenmiller, PS. 2002. Osteology of a new plesiosaur from the Lower Cretaceous Albian. Thermopolis Shale of Montana. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. Stratigraphic nomenclature chart of the laramide basins, wyoming. 18 STRATIGRAPHY OF THE THERMOPOLIS SHALE which include well exposed upper and lower contacts, and for the comparative lack of slumping ​plate la. Thermopolis Shale Map. Five miles south of Thermopolis, WY view toward north. The surface rocks in the foreground belong to the Phosphoria fm Permian the red Chugwater shale.





Frontier Formation and Mowry and Thermopolis Shales WYKft 0.

Shell Creek shale. Fossils. Bentonite beds. Regional relationships. Relations to the Colorado Front Range. Thermopolis shale. Muddy sandstone. Shell Creek. Petrophysical Properties of Cody, Mowry, Shell Creek, and. Shales, siltstones, limestones, and sandstones. Sensor systems included Thermopolis Shale, MuddySandstone, MowryShale and Frontier Formation. The.


Short necked plesiosaurs of the family Polycotylidae from the.

Mowry and Thermopolis shales contain normal fatty acids with sample of Chattanooga shale of Mississippian age from. Oklahoma. Both even and. AN ANALYSIS OF GEOTHERMAL POTENTIAL NEAR WESTERN. Pierre Shale, South Dakota and Nebraska: U.S. Geological Survey. I NATIONAL PARK sandstone member of the Thermopolis Shale, southwestern. Montana:. Montanas Ground Water Information Center GWIC Aquifer. The Early Cretaceous Albian lower sandstone member of the. Thermopolis Shale in the Bozeman, Montana area has previously been interpreted as a. Mesozoic Stratigraphy Thermopolis!. By two shale barriers: from above by the Mowry Shale, a 100 foot thick layer, and below by the Thermopolis Shale, an 86 foot thick layer.


Sedimentology of the early cretaceous lower sandstone NanoPDF.

122. Thermopolis shale. Soft dark gray to black shale containing In its middle a thin bedded brown sandstone 17 feet hi ck. Z72. Cloverly for. Untitled NPS IRMA Portal National Park Service. Contact between upper black shale member and Muddy sandstone member of Thermopolis shale. Sandstone, gray, weathering brown, coarse grained,. UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF INTERIOR ClimateWest. Mowry and Thermopolis Shales, strat unit: Frontier Formation Mowry Shale​ Thermopolis Shale, gmu ref:.


Eicher, Don L.

The Thermopolis Shale! If you are a rock hound or just love nature & geology, be sure to take a ride through our scenic Wind River Canyon and take a hike Следующая Войти Настройки. A preliminary assessment of paleontological resources at bighorn. 217MDDY, MUDDY SANDSTONE MEMBER OF THERMOPOLIS SHALE. 217MLTN, MOULTON SANDSTONE. 217MSSR, MOSSER SANDSTONE. Depositional environment and taphonomy of marine albian StudyLib. Google Earth image of Thermopolis area, annotated geology, Hot Springs County, The Claggett member is a tongue of the Cody Shale that separates the​. N87 17140. Thermopolis Shale is defined to include all rocks between the top of the Greybull distinction behveen the Thermopolis and Shell Creek Shales, and. 2.


Stratigraphy of the thermopolis shale and the muddy sandstone in.

South of Thermopolis is the maximum development of the formation where three 2 A red bed unit composed of from 5 to 25 feet of red shale, silts, and some. An Examination of the Geochemistry of the Thermopolis Shale. The Thermopolis Shale is a geologic formation which formed in west central North America in the Albian age of the Late Cretaceous period. Surface. Thermopolis Shale pedia. Thermopolis Shale. Morrison Formation. Lakota. Formation. Fall River. Formation​. Inyan Kara. Gp. Sundance. Formation. Chugwater. Formation of Darton. 1908.


Organic geochemistry of shales I Distribution of organic matter in.

32 STRATIGRAPHY OF THE THERMOPOLIS SHALE:S. CD X lO CD J xL​ ° fe s o 8 s in o 1 S o J. Please note that these images are. Osteology of a new plesiosaur from the lower Cretaceous Albian. Kmt Mowry Shale and Thermopolis Shale, undivided. K cm Cloverly and Morrison Formations, undivided. Bighorn Lake. Jsg. Jsg Sundance and Gypsum​. The Thermopolis Shale in Eastern AAPG Datapages Archives. The Thermopolis Shale is a geologic formation which formed in west central North America in the Albian age of the Late Cretaceous period. Surface outcroppings occur in central Canada, and the U.S. states of Montana and Wyoming. Morseaway Museum of the Rockies. Early middle Cretaceous Thermopolis Shale in Montana. Amateur collectors who collect for museums are one of a museums greatest assets!.





Regional Aspects of the Muddy Formation in the Wind River Basin.

Several hundred tintinnid specimens have been recoveredfrom the Albian Thermopolis and Nefsy Shales andfrom the Ceno manian Graneros Shale at. February 5, 1966 NATURE ODOUR AND MOLECULAR VIBRATION. He considered the uppermost unit, a sequence of interbedded black shales and thin sandstone rusty series, to be the lower part of the Thermopolis Shale.


MIS MAP I 2474 A West East Stratigraphic Transet of Cretaceous.

People also search for. You know our mineral hot springs are Hot Springs Wyoming. The right aburment consists of Thermopolis shale. Both the Cloverly and Thermopolis Formations dip gently in a downstream direstion with a strike. David A. Sawyer presents Dating Arizona Geological Society. Placed the rusty beds in th e Thermopolis shale and considered the Grey. b u ll sandstone as the upper member of the Cloverly, However, they seem to have. MIRSKY, Arthur. STRATIGRAPHY OF THE ETD OhioLINK. Interbedded sandstone and shale. Rusty Beds locally form hogbacks. Deltaic system with channels, delta bay, and pro delta facies. Thermopolis Formation. New publications by the Wyoming State Geological Survey. As defined in this report, Thermopolis shale is divided into a lower black shale member 155 to 220 ft thick and the Muddy sandstone member 45.


Poison Creek Wyoming Department of Environmental Quality.

Uppermost Thermopolis Shale beneath the Muddy at Greybull, Wyoming is just slightly older at 101.36 Ma. In the Sweetgrass Arch area of northwest Montana,. Cody Field Office Worland Field Office Map 76 BLM ePlanning. Frontier Formation and Mowry and Thermopolis Shales. Frontier Formation. Cody Shale. Mesozoic: Jurassic. Gypsum Spring Formation, Nugget Sandstone, and. Stratigraphy and sedimentology of Lower Cretaceous Sykes. HIMES MEMBER. THERMOPOLIS SHALE. t i Black bentonitic clayshale. Gray lithic wacke. J Quartz arenite ch. I Variegated day stones with iron oxide velnlets. Geolex Thermopolis publications. Occur in stratified sedimentary deposits consisting primarily of soft shales and have come from the older Thermopolis Shale and Mowry Shale Formations.


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